Evolution of Ghost and Real Particle States

Pair creation from a potential well and the Ghost states

The graph shows the electronic spatial probability density after the interaction with the subcritical potential V(x,t)=V0{tanh((x+L)/W) -tanh((x-L)/W)}/2. The blue line is viewed from a field-free reference frame and the red line is viewed from an alternative reference frame that includes the potential. The densities at the large field regions is referred to as Ghost states. [ L = 9.7×10^-2 a.u, W= 2.2×10^-3 a.u, V0= -9.38×10^3 a.u, ton = 4.56×10^-4 a.u. and toff = 1.37×10^-3 a.u.] [P.Krekora, Q. Su and R. Grobe, Phys. Rev., submitted.]